- Nature and scope of finance - Finance functions - Goals of a firm; financial and non-financial objectives, overlaps and conflicts among the objectives - Agency theory, stakeholder’s theory and corporate governance - Measuring managerial performance, compensation and incentives - Ethical issues in financial management - Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and financial management


- Nature and objectives of the financing decision - Factors to consider when making financing decisions - Sources of finances for enterprises; internally generated funds and the externally generated funds, long term sources, medium term and short term sources of finance - Evaluation of financing options - Methods of issuing ordinary shares - pPublic issue, private placement, bonus issue, employee stock option plans (ESOPS) and rights issues


- Nature and role of financial markets - Classification of financial markets: primary and secondary securities market, money and the capital markets, over-the counter and organised market, derivatives market, mortgage market, forex market - The security exchange listing and cross border listing - Market efficiency - efficient market hypothesis - Stock market indices - The financial institutions and intermediaries: commercial banks, savings and loans associations and co-operative societies, foreign exchange bureaus, Unit trusts and mutual funds, insurance companies and pension firms, insuranceagencies and brokerage firms, investment companies, investment banks and stock brokerage firms, micro-finance institutions and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) - The role of regulators in financial markets - Central depository system and automated trading system - Timing of investment at the securities exchange - Dow theory and Hatch system of timing


- Concept of time value of money - Relevance of the concept of time value of money - Time value of money versus time preference of money - Compounding techniques - Discounting techniques


- Concept of value; book value, going concern value, substitution value, replacement value, conversion value, liquidation value, intrinsic value and market value - Reasons for valuing financial assets/business - Theories on valuation of financial assets; fundamental theory, technical theory, random walk theory and the efficient market hypothesis - Valuation of redeemable, irredeemable and convertible debentures and corporate bonds - Valuation of redeemable, Irredeemable and convertible preference shares - Valuation of ordinary shares; net asset basis, price earnings ratio basis, capitalisation of earnings basis, Gordon’s model, finite earnings growth model, Super-profit model, Marakon model, Walter’s model, Discounted free cash flow, residual income model - Use of relative measures such as Economic Value added (EVA) and Market Value Added (MVA) - Valuation of unit trusts and mutual funds - Valuation of private companies: income and market based approaches


- Firms capital structure and factors influencing capital structure decisions - Factors influencing firms cost of capital - Relevance of cost of capital - Component costs of capital - The firm’s overall cost of capital - Weighted average cost of capital (WACC) - Weighted marginal cost of capital (WMCC) - Introduction to break-points in weighted marginal cost of capital schedule - Operating and financial leverage - degree of operating leverage and operating risk; degree of financial leverage and financial risk - Combined leverage - degree of combined leverage and total risk


- The nature and importance of capital investment decisions - Capital investment’s cash flows - initial cash outlay, terminal cash flows and annual net operating cash flows, incremental approach to cash flow estimation - Capital investment appraisal techniques - Non-discounted cash flow methods - payback period and accounting rate of return - Discounted cash flow methods - net-present value, internal rate of return, profitability index, discounted payback period and modified internal rate of return (MIRR) - Strengths and weaknesses of the investment appraisal techniques - Expected relations among an investment’s NPV, company value and share price - Capital rationing - evaluation of capital projects and determination of optimal capital budget in situations of capital rationing for a single period rationing - Capital investment options - timing option, strategic investment option, replacement option and abandonment option - Problems/difficulties encountered when making capital investment decisions in reality


- Users of financial statements and their information needs - Ratio analysis; nature of financial ratios, classification and calculation of financial ratios and limitation of financial ratios - Common size statements - Vertical and horizontal analysis - Financial forecasting; cash budgeting and percentage of sales method of forecasting


- Introduction and concepts of working capital - Working capital versus working capital management - Factors influencing working capital requirements of a firm - Importance and objectives of working capital management - Working capital operating cycle; the importance and computation of the working capital operating cycle - Working capital financing policies aggressive, conservative and matching financing policy - Management of stock, cash, debtors and creditors


- Forms of dividend - How to pay dividends and when to pay dividends - How much dividend to pay - Firms dividend policy and factors influencing dividend decision - Why pay dividends - Dividend relevance theories; Bird in hand, Clientele effect, Information signaling theory, Walter’s model, Tax differential theory, Modigliani and Miller dividend irrelevance theory


- Risk-return trade off/relationship - Distinction between risk free and risky assets - Expected return of an asset - Total risk of an asset - Relative risk of an asset - Expected return of a 2 asset-portfolio - The actual total risk of a 2-asset portfolio


- Justification for Islamic Finance; history of Islamic finance; capitalism; halal; haram; riba; gharar; usury - Principles underlying Islamic finance: principle of not paying or charging interest, principle of not investing in forbidden items such as alcohol, pork, gambling or pornography; ethical investing; moral purchases - The concept of interest (riba) and how returns are made by Islamic financial securities - Sources of finance in Islamic financing: muhabaha, sukuk, musharaka, mudaraba - Types of Islamic financial products:- sharia-compliant products: Islamic investment funds; takaful the Islamic version of insurance Islamic mortgage, murabahah,; Leasing - ijara; safekeeping - Wadiah; sukuk - islamic bonds and securitisation; sovereign - sukuk; Islamic investment funds; Joint venture -Musharaka, Islamic banking, Islamic contracts, Islamic treasury products and hedging products, Islamic equity funds; Islamic derivatives - International standardisation/regulations of Islamic Finance: case for standardisation using religious and prudential guidance, National regulators, Islamic Financial Services Board


Nature and scope of finance

Financial Management means applying management principles to manage the financial resources of an organization. It simply involves planning, organizing, directing, and controlling financial operations to manage the finance of an organization efficiently. Financial Management is a methodology that a business implements to monitor and govern its revenue, expenses, and assets in order to maximize profitability and ensure sustainability.

Financial management is concerned with efficiently planning the procurement of funds and the utilization of these funds in the business. The finance manager is required to decide the proper capital structure of an organization deciding the optimum mix of debt and equity for raising required funds. Financial management concept ensures that an adequate amount of funds is always available in business from different sources and also it earns the best return on its investments.

Scope of Financial Management
  • Investment decision- Financial management is involved in managing all investment decisions of an organization. Investment decisions involve risk evaluation, measuring the cost of capital, and estimating benefits expected out of a particular project. Managers are responsible for deciding how available funds should be invested in fixed or current assets to earn optimum returns.
  • Working Capital decision– Taking working capital decisions properly is another important scope of financial management. These decisions are concerned with investment in current assets or current liabilities. Working capital decisions revolve around working capital and short-term financing. Current assets include cash, inventories, receivables, short-term securities, etc. whereas current liabilities include creditors, bank overdraft, bills payable.
  • Financing decision- Financing decisions involves deciding how the required funds should be raised from available long term or short term sources. A financial manager is required to form a proper finance mix or optimum capital structure of the company to raise its value. They are required to maintain a proper balance between equity and debt to provide maximum return to shareholders.
  • Dividend decision- Financial management involves taking all dividend decisions of the company. These decisions involve developing a proper dividend policy regarding the distribution or retaining of company profits. The finance manager should decide an optimum dividend payout ratio out of available profit. He should consider all expansion and growth opportunities available to the organization and should avail them by retaining a proper amount of profit.
  • Ensures liquidity– Maintaining proper liquidity in an organization is another important role played by financial management. The finance manager ensures that there is a regular supply of funds in an organization. He monitors all cash-inflows and cash-outflows and avoids any underflow or overflow like situations. Ensuring the optimum level of liquidity in an organization is one of the important scopes of financial management.
  • Profit management– Financial management aims at increasing the profit of the company. It works towards reducing the cost of various activities through proper monitoring and setting up proper price policy. The finance manager measures the cost of capital and chooses cheap sources of capital by properly analyzing different sources available.

Objectives of Financial Management

The financial management is generally concerned with procurement, allocation and control of financial resources of a concern. The objectives can be-

  1. To ensure regular and adequate supply of funds to the concern.
  2. To ensure adequate returns to the shareholders which will depend upon the earning capacity, market price of the share, expectations of the shareholders.
  3. To ensure optimum funds utilization. Once the funds are procured, they should be utilized in maximum possible way at least cost.
  4. To ensure safety on investment, i.e, funds should be invested in safe ventures so that adequate rate of return can be achieved.
  5. To plan a sound capital structure-There should be sound and fair composition of capital so that a balance is maintained between debt and equity capital.


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